Sunday, May 31, 2015

The Royal Recap of the Royals You Love: May 25-31, 2015

Belgium

-King Philippe & Queen Mathilde hosted a luncheon for jury members from the Concours Reine Élisabeth (Queen Elisabeth Music Competition) on Tuesday {Photos}. On Friday, the Belgian monarch and consort  visited Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie (VRT) {Source}.

-Queen Mathilde & Princess Elisabeth, The Duchess of Brabant attended a session of the finals of the Queen Elisabeth Violin Competition 2015 on Thursday {Photos}

-Queen Paola attended a onference organized by Missing Children Europe on Wednesday {Photos}.

Denmark


-Queen Margarethe II & Henrik, Prince Consort attended the Livgardens Musikkorps (Life Guards) concert on Wednesday {Source}.

-Henrik, Prince Consort attended the Export Association's 50th anniversary gala on Friday {Source}

-Crown Prince Fredrik celebrated his 47th birthday on Tuesday. On Saturday, the future Danish monarch attended the ICF Canoe Sprint World Cup-Copenhagen {Source}

-Crown Princess Mary met with the charity Brothers for Life on Tuesday {Source}. On Wednesday, the future Danish Queen visited the  Psychiatry Fund Reach Out bus at Ruds Vedby School {Source}.

-Prince Joachim participated in the celebration of The International Peacekeepers Day on Friday {Source}

-Princess Marie attend a Special Schools Sports Day on Thursday {Source}.

Great Britain

-Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Philip, The Duke of Edinburgh, The Prince Charles of Wales, Camilla, The Duchess of Cornwall, The Princess Anne, The Princess Royal attended the 2015 State Opening of Parliament on Wednesday {Photos}

-Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Philip, The Duke of Edinburgh, The Princess Anne, Princess Royal, Princess Beatrice of York, Prince Michael of Kent, Princess Michael of Kent,Prince Edward. The Duke of Kent , Prince Richard, The Duke of Gloucester & Birigitte, The Duchess of Gloucester attended the third garden party of the year on Thursday {Photos}

-Queen Elizabeth II visited the city of Lancaster on Saturday {Source}.

-The Princess Anne, The Princess Royal opened Ashley Place on Wednesday {Source}.

-Tāne Mahuta Lewis celebrated his 3rd birthday on Monday.

-Sylvana Palma Windsor, The Countess of St Andrews celebrated her 58th birthday on Thursday.

-Zenouska May Mowatt celebrated her 25th birthday on Tuesday.

France

-Prince Louis de Bourbon, The Duke of Burgundy celebrated his 4th birthday on Thursday.

-Prince Alphonse de Bourbon, The Duke of Berry celebrated his 4th birthday on Thursday.

Japan

-Emperor Akihito & Empress Michiko attended the Vienna Boys' Choir concert and held an audience with the Prime Minister of Malaysia and his wife on Monday {Photos}{Photos}. On Tuesday, they visited the Peace Monument in Yokoami Park {Photos}. On Thursday, they attended the 50th anniversary celebrations of Kodomo-no-Kuni (Children's Land) Amusement Park {Source}.

-Crown Prince Naruhito & Crown Princess Masako viewed the exhibition, Musée du Louvre: Peinture de Genre - Scènes de la vie Quotidienne on Monday {Photos}

-Prince Akishino & Princess Kiko attended a memorial service for "... Japan's unidentified war dead..." held at the Chidorigafuchi National Cemetery on Monday {Source}.

Jordan


-King Abdullah II, Queen Rania, Crown Prince Hussein bin Abdullah attended a ceremony to celebrate the 69th anniversary of the independence of Jordan on Monday {Source}.

-Crown Prince Hussein opened in the central Salt city a pharmaceutical center of excellence, established under the umbrella of the Vocational Training Corporation on Tuesday {Source}.

Liechtenstein

-Prince Moritz celebrated his 12th birthday on Wednesday.

Monaco

-Prince Albert II & Princess Caroline of Hanover attended the 48th Concours International de Bouquets on Saturday {Photos}.

-Princess Charlene visited new mothers at the Princess Grace Hosptial Centre on Sunday {Photos}

The Netherlands

-Princess Laurentien celebrated her 49th birthday on Monday.

Prince Maurits of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven & Princess Marilène of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven celebrated their 17th wedding anniversary on  Saturday.

-Felicia van Lippe-Biesterfeld van Vollenhoven celebrated her 10th birthday on Sunday.

-Samuel Bernhard Louis van Vollenhoven celebrated his 10th birthday on Monday.

Norway

-Crown Prince Haakon attended the 75th anniversary celebrations of the liberation of Narvik on Thursday {Source}.

-Crown Princess Mette-Marit opened the 2015 Norwegian Festival of Literature on Tuesday {Source}

Romania

-Courtney Bianca Knight celebrated her 8th birthday on Sunday.

Spain

-King Felipe VI officially opened the 12th Edition of the Carbon Expo Trade Fair and Conference and held an audience with several German business people on Tuesday {Source} {Photos}. On Wednesday, he participated in the exercises of "White Snake" Interoperability Groups Health Brigade of the Army {Source}. On Thursday, he presided over the commemoration of the 25th anniversary of the establishment of the Police Intervention Unit (PIU) of the National Police {Source}. On Saturday, the Spanish monarch presided over the Copa del Rey Football Finals {Source}

-Queen Sofia attended RTVE Orchestra 50th anniversary concert on Thursday {Source}. On Friday, the former Spanish Queen innaugarated the 74th edition of the Madrid Book Fair {Source}.

Royal Profile: Courtney Bianca Knight

Courtney Bianca Knight was born on 31 May 2007 at Bay Area Hospital, Coos Bay, Oregon, USA as the first child of Richard Knight and Angelica Margaretta Bianca Kreuger {Source}

Her grandmother is one of the five daughters of King Michael I of Romania, making Courtney one of his great-granddaughters {Source}.

According to the official Romanian House website, she and her family are not in line of succession to the throne.

Royal Profile: 10 Facts about Felicia van Lippe-Biesterfeld van Vollenhoven

  1. Felicia Juliana Benedicte Barbara van Lippe-Biesterfeld van Vollenhoven was born 31 May 2005.
  2. She is second daughter and youngest child of Prince Mauris of Oranje-Nassau, van Vollenhoven and Princess Marilène of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven{Source}. 
  3. She has an older brother and sister {Source}: 
    1. Anastasia (Anna) Margriet Joséphine van Lippe-Biesterfeld van Vollenhoven(2001)
    2. Lucas Maurits Pieter Henri van Lippe-Biesterfeld van Vollenhoven (2002)
  4. Her godparents are{Source}:
    1. Prince Constantijn of The Netherlands (her father's cousin)
    2. Prince Floris of Orange-Nassau (paternal uncle)
    3. Barbara Ruding (friend of her parents)
  5. Her paternal grandparents are Princess Margriet of The Netherlands & Professor Pieter van Vollenhoven
  6. With her great-Aunt Beatrix's abdication in 2013, her family (aside from her grandmother) does not have succession rights any longer. It is likely Felicia and her siblings lead normal lives.
  7. She is named for:
    1. Felicia: likely a name her parents liked, meaning Happy.
    2. Juliana: her great-grandmother, Queen Juliana
    3. Benedicte: not sure, but it means Blessed in Latin...
    4. Barbara: Her godmother, Barbara Rudding
  8. Her patenernal aunts and uncles are:
    1. Prince Bernhard of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven
    2. Princess Annette of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven
    3. Prince Pieter-Christiaan of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven 
    4. Princess Anita of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven
    5. Prince Floris of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven
    6. Princess  Aimée of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven
  9. She has the following cousins:
    1. Isabella Lily Juliana van Vollenhoven (2002)
    2. Samuel Bernhard Louis van Vollenhoven (2004)
    3. Emma Francisca Catharina van Vollenhoven (2006)
    4. Magali Margriet Eleonoor van Vollenhoven ( 2007)
    5. Benjamin Pieter Floris van Vollenhoven (2008)
    6. Pieter Anton Maurits Erik van Vollenhoven (2008)
    7. Eliane Sophia Carolina van Vollenhoven (2009)
    8. Willem Jan Johannes Pieter Floris van Vollenhoven (2013)
  10. Growing up in The Netherlands, she likely speaks Dutch fluently.

Thursday, May 28, 2015

Royal Profile: Prince Alphonse de Bourbon

Prince Alphonse de Bourbon was born 28 May 2010 as the twin son of The Duke and Duchess of Anjou {Source}. He and his twin are the younger brothers of Princess Eugenie de Bourbon{Source}.

At birth, he was given the title Duke of Berry. His godparents were Amparo Corell de Trenor baroness de Alacuas & Lorenzo Perales.

Given the fact he and his family are members of pretending throne, little to nothing is known about him.

Royal Profile: Prince Louis de Bourbon

Prince Louis of Bourbon was born 28 May 2010 as the twin son of The Duke and Duchess of Anjou {Source}. He and his twin are the younger brothers of Princess Eugenie de Bourbon{Source}. 

At birth, he was given the title Duke of Burgundy. His godparents were Arancha Martínez-Bordíu and Francisco D'Agostino.

Given the fact he and his family are members of pretending throne, little to nothing is known about him. As the elder of the twins, he is the current Dauphin of France and should succeed his father as the head of the House of Bourbon.

Royal Profile: Sylvana Palma Windsor, The Countess of St Andrews

Sylvana Palma Windsor, The Countess of St Andrews was born as Syvanna Palma Tomaselli on 28 May 1957 to Maximilian Tomaselli and Josiane Tomaselli {Source}. 

She was born in Canada, and spent her primary educational years there. She moved to England to continue her education. She recieved a BA from UBC and an MA from York University in Ontario, and another MA from Cantab. She was a Fellow at St. John's College, University of Cambridge in 2004 {Source}.She is a founding member of the European Centre for the Philosophy of Gender, Siegen, Germany {Source}. Currently, she is a Directorofs  tudiens in History Part 1 and Social and Political Sciences at St. John's College, University of Cambridge{Source}

She has been married twice. The first time was to John Paul Jones in December 1977, which ended in divorce without issue in 1981. She married secondly to George, Earl of St. Andrews on 9 January 1988{Source}. Together, she and The Earl of St. Andrews have the following children:
  • Edward Windsor, Lord Downpatrick (1988)
  • The Lady Mariana-Charlotte Windsor (1992)
  • The Lady Amelia Windsor (1995)
Due to her being brought up in the Catholic faith and not converting prior to marriage, her husband renounced his rights to the crown. Later on, in their teen years, Lord Downpatrick and The Lady Mariana-Charlotte Windsor also renounced their rights to the throne by converting to Catholicism. The Lady Amelia is currently the only one in succession, in 36th place.

Wednesday, May 27, 2015

Royal Profile: Prince Moritz Emanuel Maria of Liechtenstein

Prince Moritz Emanuel Maria of Liechtenstein was born 27 May 2003 in New York City, and is the eldest son of Prince Constantin and Princess Marie{Source}. He has two younger siblings{Source}:

He is presently 8th in line for the throne after two uncles, four cousins and his father.


The 12 year old is likely kept from the limelight due to his distance to the throne and young age.


In 2012, he joined the rest of the Princely family to celebrate Liechtenstein's National Day {Photos}.


It is likely that he speaks German, as it is the official language of Liechtenstein.

Tuesday, May 26, 2015

Royal Profile: Zenouska May Mowatt

Zenouska May Mowatt was born 26 May 1990 as the only daughter and elder child of Paul Julian Mowatt and Marina Victoria Alexandra Ogilvy {Source}. She is the granddaughter of Rt. Sir Angus James Robert Bruce Ogilvy and Princess Alexandra of Kent {Source}. Currently, she is 55th in line for the British throne, after the immediate family of reining monarch, The Gloucester family, her great-uncle (The Duke of Kent) and his family, her grandmother, uncle, two cousins, mother and brother {Source}.

Little is known about her, nor does she hold any official role within the monarchy. As of 2003, she was attending St. George's School, Windsor Castle{Source}. Like most 20-somethings, she is active in social media, including Facebook, Twitter and Instagram (NO,do not even think about asking). She is claimed to be good friends with Princess Beatrice of York and Princess Eugenie of York. As children, they were often seen together, mostly with Sarah, Duchess of York {Photos}.


Since graduating school, she has taken up work experience with the office of Sarah, Duchess of York, and currently works as a manager for the company French Sole {Source}.


While Mowatt holds no offical role like that of her grandmother, she does occasionally attend royal events such as Trooping of Colour and royal weddings. On 5 January 2005, she was at her grandmother's side when they attended her grandfather's funeral services {Photos}. In 2013, she attended the Launch of The Beulah London / French Sole Collaboration at George Club {Source}, and arrived with her grandmother for the Queen's annual Christmas luncheon {Photos}. She appeared at the Trooping of Colour at least once, in 2005 {Source}.

Royal Profile: Crown Frederik André Henrik Christian of Denmark, Count of Monpezat

Crown Frederik André Henrik Christian of Denmark, Count of Monpezat was born on 26 May 1968, the elder of two sons to Queen Margarethe II & Prince Henrik of Denmark {Source}. He is first in line to succeed to the throne and is the regent when HM The Queen is out of the country {Source}.

He was christened at Holmens Kirke (the naval church) on 24 June 1968 {Source}. His godparents were{Source}:
  • Prince Georg of Denmark (his maternal 3rd cousin 1x removed) 
  • Queen Anne-Marie of The Hellenes (his maternal aunt)
  • Grand Duchess Joséphine-Charlotte of Luxembourg
  • Maximilien de Watteville-Berckheim, Baron de Watteville-Berckheim
  • Count Etienne de Laborde de Monpezat
  • Mrs Birgitta Juel Hillingsø.

He was confirmed on 28 May 1981 {Source}.


Denmark's future King attended the Krebs' Skole from 1974-1981. His early years (1974-1976), he was associated with the school via a private tutor {Source}. During the 1982-1983 school year, the future Danish King attended École des Roches in Normandy, France {Source}. In 1986, the Crown Prince graduated from Øregaard Gymnasium{Source}. In 1995, he graduated from the University of Aarhus with a MSc (Political science) {Source}. He also studied at Harvard University during the 1992-1993 school year{Source}.

The Crown Prince has an extensive international business background {Source}. In 1994, the young prince served at the Danish UN Mission and was posted at the Royal Danish Embassy in Paris as a first Secretary of the Embassy {Source}.

The future monarch of Denmark also has an extensive military background. He has taken part in several training courses in the Danish military{Source}. Crown Prince Frederik’s military education began in 1986 as a recruit in the Queen’s Life Guard Regiment{Source}. In 1988, he was appointed as a lieutenant of the reserve{Source}.. After obtaining that rank, the Crown Prince became a platoon commander in the Royal Danish Hussar Guard Regiment in 1988{Source}.. In 1989, he was appointed as a first lieutenant of the reserve{Source}.The Crown Prince completed frogman training with the Royal Danish Navy Frogman Corps in 1995{Source}. The same year, the Crown Prince was appointed as a first lieutenant of the reserve (navy), and he was appointed as a lieutenant commander of the reserve (navy) in 1997{Source}.. Also in 1997, the Crown Prince was appointed as a captain of the reserve (army), and in 2000, he was appointed as a captain of the reserve (air force){Source}. Between 2001 and 2002, the Crown Prince completed further training step II for leaders at the Royal Danish Defense College, and in 2002, he was appointed as a major of the reserve (army and air force) as well as a commander (navy){Source}.. In 2002 and 2003, Crown Prince Frederik served as a staff officer at Defense Command Denmark, and he also became a senior lecturer with the Institute of Strategy at the Royal Danish Defense College in 2003{Source}. In April 2004, the Crown Prince was appointed as a commander,senior grade in the navy, lieutenant colonel in the army and lieutenant colonel in the air force{Source}.

As a future world leader, the Crown Prince of Denmark speaks many languages {Source}. His native tounge is Danish {Source}. He also speaks his father's native tongue, French {Source}. He also speaks English and German {Source}.

The Prince has participated in numerous expeditions. In 1986, he participated in an expedition to Mongolia {Source}. In 2000, he participated in "Expedition Sirius 2000" (a 4 month 2795 KM dog-sled expedition in the northern part of Greenland) {Source}{Source}.


He met his future bride, Mary, at an Australian pub during the 2000 Sydney Olympics{Source}. They were wed on 14 May 2004 in Copenhagen Cathedral{Source}. Together, they have four children:



Today, the future monarch resides with his family at the Chancellery House at Fredensborg Palace and also in Frederik VIII's Palace at Amalienborg Palace {Source}.

Monday, May 25, 2015

Royal Profile: Princess Laurentien of The Netherlands

Petra Laurentien Brinkhorst (aka Princess Laurentien of The Netherlands) was born in Leiden on 25 May 1966 to Laurens Jan Brinkhorst and Jantien Brinkhorst-Heringa {Source}.

She attended school in The Netherlands, and in Japan{Source}. She received her Baccalauréat from Lycée français in Japan{Source}. She studied history at Groningen University{Source}, earning a foundations degree in 1986{Source}. She then attended Queen Mary College, London University, where she studied political science in 1989{Source}. In 1991, she earned a Master of Journalism from the University of California at Berkeley{Source}

She married Prince Constantijn on 17 May 2001 {Source}. Together, they have three children{Source}:
The family lives in Brussels{Source}.

In addition to her royal duties, she works as a freelance communications consultant {Source}. Since 2008, she has worked for the European Climate Foundation {Source}. In 2009, she set up the Missing Chapter Foundation{Source}.

One of the Princess's major causes involved the environment and environmential issues{Source}. She is actively involved with the WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature), especially with their "Rewildingn Europe" inititiave{Source}.On 1 November 2012, she was appointed President of Fauna & Flora International (FFI){Source}{Source} A second major cause for the princess is promoting literacy{Source}. She is chair of the Stichting Lezen & Zchrijven {Source}. On 24 March 2009, Princess Laurentien was designated UNESCO Special Envoy on Literacy for Development {Source}. Since 1 February 2011 the Princess has been Chair of the European Commission's High Level Group on Literacy {Source}.
Honorary posts

As a member of the Royal House, Princess Laurentien holds a number of honorary posts{Source}:
  • Patron of the Dutch Listening and Braille Library (NLBB)
  • Patron of the Dutch language society Genootschap Onze Taal
  • Honorary Chair of the Association of Public Libraries
  • President of Fauna & Flora International (FFI)
  • President of the European Cultural Foundation

Royal Profile: Samuel Bernhard Louis van Vollenhoven

Samuel Bernhard Louis van Vollenhoven was born 25 May 2004 as the second child of Prince  Bernhard van Oranje-Nassau, van Vollenhoven & Princess Annette van Oranje-Nassau, van Vollenhoven {Source}. He has one older sister, and a younger brother {Source}:
  1. Miss Isabella Lily Juliana van Vollenhoven (2002)
  2. Master Benjamin Pieter Floris van Vollenhoven(2008)
His godparents are {Source}{Source}:
  • Princess Margriet (paternal grandmother)
  • Prince Pieter-Christiaan of Oranje-Nassau, van Vollenhoven (paternal uncle)
  • Marjolein Sekrève (maternal aunt?)
  • Diederik de Rooy
His parents mostly lead private lives, therefore it is likely safe to assume so does Samuel, and he will continue to do so. His father is a first cousin of the current Dutch King, and with his great-aunt Beatrix's abdication in 2013, his father lost his rights to the throne, however, his grandmother remains in line of succession.

Royal Profile: Tāne Mahuta Lewis

Tāne Mahuta Lewis is the son of Gary Lewis and The Lady Davina Lewis on 25 May 2012 {Source}. He is the grandson of The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester {Source}. He has one sister, Senna {Source}, and a much older half-brother, Ari {Source} .

As of 2015, Lewis is 30th in line for the throne after his mother and elder sister {Source}. 


He resides in New Zealand with his family, but makes frequent trips back to the United Kingdom for family vacations, official events and to visit his maternal grandparents.

Sunday, May 24, 2015

The Royal Recap of the Royals You Love: May 18-24, 2015

Belgium

-King Philippe & Queen Mathilde hosted a reception for representatives from the Asia Society Policy Institute on Tuesday {Photos}.

-King Philippe attended a reception at the Palais de Bruxelles with members of the Confrerie du Maitrank d'Arlon confraternity on Thursday {Photos}

-Queen Mathilde viewed the exhibition, Vormidable Contemporary Flemish Sculptur  on Wednesday {Photos}. On Thursday, the Belgian Queen attended the inauguration of the maternity and children's wing at the Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (UZA) hospital {Photos}

-Leopoldo Daniel Moncada celebrated his 14th birthday on Thursday. 

Denmark

-Queen Margarethe II inaugurated a new building at the CLAY Keramikmuseum Danmark on Tuesday {Photos}

-Crown Prince Fredrik & Crown Princess Mary attended to an official visit three day visit to Germany on Tuesday {ThSource}.

-Prince Joachim & Princess Marie celebrated their 7th wedding anniversary on Sunday.

Germany

-Hubertus, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg & Gotha & Kelly, Hereditary Princess of Saxe-Coburg & Gotha celebrated their 6th wedding anniversary on Saturday.

Great Britain

-Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Philip, The Duke of Edinburgh, The Prince Charles of Wales, Camilla, The Duchess of Cornwall, Sophie, The Countess of Wessex & Prince Harry of Wales attended the 2015 Royal Horticultural Society Chelsea Flower Show on Monday {Photos}{Photos}{Photos}.

-Queen Elizabeth II & Prince Philip, The Duke of Edinburgh hosted the second Garden Party of the year on Wednesday {Photos}

-The Prince Charles of Wales & Camilla, The Duchess of Cornwall attended to a four-day official visit to Ireland and Northern Ireland beginning on Tuesday {Photos}.

-Camilla, The Duchess of Cornwall visited Ballyhackamore Credit Union on Thursday {Photos}
-Sophie, The Countess of Wessex met young people who have achieved the Gold Standard of The Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme during a visit to Prague, met designers and entrepreneurs at World Fellowship and British Chamber of Fashion events on Wednesday {Photos}

-Prince William, The Duke of Cambridge met with the England Women Football Team ahead of the FIFA Women's World Cup on Wednesday {Photos}. On Thursday, the future monarch attended The Tusk Dinner {Photos}

-Prince Harry of Wales participated in the Maserati Jerudong Park Trophy Polo Match on Sunday {Photos}

-The Lady Cosima Rose Alexandra Windsor celebrated her 5th birthday on Wednesday.

-Sarah. Duchess of York attended the amfAR's 22nd Cinema Against AIDS Gala on Thursday {Photos}.

Greece

-Crown Prince Pavlos celebrated his 48th birthday on Wednesday.

Jordan

-Queen Rania officially opened the special exhibition,Hussein Madi in Amman  on Monday {Photos}. On Tuesday, the Jordanian Queen visited the Al Ma’mounieh Al Gharbieh Secondary Mixed School {Source}

-Prince Rashid bin El Hassan celebrated his 36th birthday on Wednesday.

Liechtenstein

-Prince Joesph Wenzel celebrated his 20th birthday on Sunday.

-Prince Alfons celebrated his 14th birthday on Monday.

-Prince Benedikte celebrated his 7th birthday on Monday.

Monaco

-Prince Albert II, Princess Charlene, Andrea Albert Pierre Casiraghi & Pierre Rainier Stefano Casiraghi attended the 73rd annual Monaco Grand Prix on Sunday {Photos}
Also in their company was Pierre's long-time love, Beatrice Borromeo

-Prince Albert II & Louis Robert Paul Ducruet attended the 2015 All-Stars Celebrity Football Match on Tuesday {Photos}.

-Prince Albert II attended the 2015 AS Monaco Basketball vs Charleville- Mezieres Championships game on Friday {Photos}

-Pierre Rainier Stefano Casiraghi attended the 2015 Champ Seed Foundation Gala on Tuesday {Photos}

-Andrea Albert Pierre Casiraghi & Pierre Rainier Stefano Casiraghi attended the Qualifying of the Grand Prix de Monaco {Photos}
Also in their company was Pierre's long-time love, Beatrice Borromeo

The Netherlands

-King Willem-Alexander & Queen Maxima visited the region of Zeeuws Vlaanderen on Tuesday {Source}.

-King Willem-Alexander, Queen Maxima & Princess Beatrix attended the 2015 Appeltjes van Oranje Awards on Wednesday {Photos}

-Queen Maxima attended Professor Javier A. Couso's inaugural lecture at the University Hall at the Universiteit Utrecht on Monday {Photos}. On Wednesday, she viewed the exhibition, Vormidable Contemporary Flemish Sculptur  on Wednesday {Photos}. On Friday, the Dutch consort opened the new Zorg Onderwijs Centrum van Koninklijke Kentalis {Photos}

-Princess Beatrix officially opened the 4th Edtiion of the Biennel Internationale Sculptuurroute ARTZUID 2015 on Friday {Photos}.

-Prince Constantijn & Princess Laurentien celebrated their 14th wedding anniversary on Tuesday.

Norway

-King Harald V presented the Abel Prize for 2015 on Monday {Source}. On Wednesday. he began a one-week official visit to the United States, where he will visit Washington State and Alaska {Source}

-Princess Märtha Louise &Ari Behn celebrated their 13th wedding anniversary on Sunday.

Spain

-King Felipe VI & Queen Letizia held various audiences on Monday {Source}{Source}{Source}. On Friday, they presided over the Oath of Allegiance of the Royal Guards ceremony &  celebrated their 11th wedding anniversary {Photos}.

-King Felipe VI, Queen Letizia, The Infanta Sofia, King Juan Carlos I & Queen Sofia attended the First Holy Communion of Princess Leonor of Asturias on Wednesday{Photos}.

-King Felipe VI visited the Combined Air Operations Center on Tuesday {Source}. On Thursday, he held several audiences {Source} {Source}-King Juan Carlos I  presided over the festivities of San Isidro Fair on Wednesday {Source}

-Princess Leonor of Asturias attended her First Holy Communionon Wednesday {Photos}

Sweden

-King Carl XVI Gustaf, Queen Silvia & Crown Princess Victoria attended a luncheon with Sweden's new Justice and Minister for Migration Labour Minister on Tuesday {Source}

-King Carl XVI Gustaf & Queen Silvia attended the 2015 Monaco Grand Prix Qualifying on Saturday {Photos}

-King Carl XVI Gustaf & Crown Princess Victoria attended WWF’s annual meeting held at Ulriksdal. The meeting commemorated the Royal National City Park’s 20th anniversary on Thursday {Source}.

-Queen Silvia & Crown Princess Victoria attended a global conference on dementia on Monday {Source}

-King Carl XVI Gustaf visited Angeredsgymnasiet on Monday {Source}

-Queen Silvia awarded the first Silvialäkarna on Monday {Source}. On Thursday, the Swedish Queen presided over a meeting of Mentor International {Source}

-Crown Princess Victoria presided over a meeting of the Board of Directors of the Princess Margareta's Landstormsvägen Fund on Wednesday {Source}. Over the weekend, the future Swedish monarch took part in a Military Trainers weekend {Source}

-Prince Daniel visited Jämtland Gymnasium Wargentin & Mid Sweden University on Thursday {Source}

Royal Profile:20 Facts about Prince Joesph Wenzel of Liechtenstein

  1. Prince Joesph Wenzel Maximilian Maria of Liechtenstein was born 24 May 1995{Source}.
  2. He is the eldest child of Hereditary Prince Alois of Liechtenstein & Hereditary Princess Sophie of Liechtenstein {Source}.
  3. He was born in London, at Portland Hospital.
  4. The young prince has two younger brothers and a younger sister{Source}:
    1. Princess Marie Caroline (1996)
    2. Prince Georg (1999)
    3. Prince Nikolaus (2000)
  5. His name comes from ancestors mostly{Source}:
    1. Joseph Wenzel: For his ancestor, Josef Wenzel, Reigning Prince of Liechtenstein from 1712-1718 and 1748-1772
    2. Maximillian: for his maternal grandfather, Prince Max, Duke in Bravia & paternal uncle (and godfather), Prince Maximillian
    3. Maria: in accordance with Roman Catholic royalty traditions, in honor of the Virgin Mary.
  6. He is a godchild of Prince Maximilian.
  7. As of 2013, he was attending Malvern College in England, where he had just been joined by his sister Princess Marie-Caroline {Source}{Source}. 
  8. It is likely that Joesph Wenzel received his A-Levels in 2014.
  9. He is a paternal grandchild of Prince Hans-Adam II & Princess Marie.
  10. He is a maternal grandchild of  Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria, and Princess Elisabeth, Duchess in Bavaria.
  11. He is a paternal nephew of:
    1. Prince Maximillian (1969)
      1. Princess Angela (Married 2000)
    2. Prince Constantin (1972)
      1. Princess Maria (married 1999)
    3. Princess Tatjana of Liechtenstein (1973)
      1. Mr. Philipp Baron von Lattorff  (married in 1999)
  12. He is the maternal nephew of:
    1. Duchess Marie-Caroline Hedwig Eleonore in Bavaria (1969)
      1. Duke Philipp of Württemberg (1991)
    2. Duchess Helena Eugenie Maria Donatha Mechthild in Bavaria (1972)
    3. Duchess Elisabeth Marie Christine Franziska in Bavaria (1973)
      1. Mr. Daniel Terberger (m 2004)
    4. Duchess Maria-Anna Henriette Gabrielle Julie in Bavaria(1975)
      1. Mr. Klaus Runow (m.)
  13. His paternal cousins are:
    1. Master Lukas Maria von Lattorff (2000)
    2. Prince Alfons (2001)
    3. Miss Elisabeth Maria Angela Tatjana von Lattorff (2002)
    4. Prince Moritz (2003)
    5. Miss Marie Teresa von Lattorff (2004)
    6. Miss Camilla Maria Katharina von Lattorff (2005)
    7. Princess Georgina (2005)
    8. Miss Anna Pia Theresia Maria von Lattorff (2007)
    9. Prince Benedikte (2008)
    10. Miss Sophie Katharina Maria von Lattorff (2009)
    11. Master Maximilian Maria von Lattorff (2011)
  14. His maternal cousins are:
    1. Duchess Sophie Anastasia Assunta Marie Pauline of Württemberg (1994)
    2. Duchess Pauline Philippa Adelheid Helena Marie of Württemberg (1997 )
    3. Duke Carl-Theodor Philipp Maria Max Emanuel of Württemberg (1999)
    4. Master Maximilian Ludwig Terberger (2005)
    5. Duchess Anna Maximiliana Elizabeth Mariella Marie of Württemberg (2007)
    6. Miss Ottora Elisabeth Victoria Lucia Terberger (2007)
    7. Master Heinrich Maria Leopold Maximilian Runow (2010)
    8. Master Johannes Emanuel Philipp Maria Runow (2012)
  15. His maternal great aunts and uncles are:
    1. Princess Marie Gabrielle Antonia José in Bravia, Countess von Waldburg zu Zeil und Trauchburg (1931)
    2. Georg, Fürst von Waldburg zu Zeil und Trauchburg (1928)
    3. Princess Marie Charlotte Juliana in Bravia (1931)
    4. Paul, Fürst von Quadt zu Wykradt und Isny (1930-2011)
    5. Franz, Duke of Bavaria (1933)
  16. His paternal great aunts and uncles are:
    1. Prince Phillipp of Liechtenstein (1946-1991)
    2. Princess Isabelle de l'Arbre de Malander of Liechtenstein  (1949)
    3. Prince Nikolaus of Liechtenstein (1947)
    4. Princess Margaretha of Luxembourg, Princess of Liechtenstein (1957),
    5. Princess Norberta "Nora" (1950)
    6. Vicente Sartorius y Cabeza de Vaca (1931–2002), 3rd Marqués de Mariño
    7. Prince Franz Josef of Liechtenstein (1962–1991)
  17. He is currently 2nd in the for the throne of Liechtenstein after his father.
  18. He is also 3rd in line for the the Jacobite succession to England after his mother.
  19. If/When he "reigns" in the Jacobite crown, he will be the 1st Jacobite to have been born on English soil since James Francis Edward Stuart in 1688.
  20. When he he will eventually become a Head of State of Liechtenstein, a position not held by a Stuart heir-general since his great-great-great-great uncle Francis V, Duke of Modena.

Thursday, May 21, 2015

Royal Profile: Leopoldo Daniel Moncada

Leopoldo Daniel Moncada was born 21 May 2001 in London, England, as the second child and son of Princess Marie-Esmeralda of Belgium and Salvador Enrique Moncada {Source}. He has one older sister, Alexandra (1998) {Source}. He is the half-cousin of the current King of the Belgians, King Philippe, as his mother was the King's father's half-sister.


Moncada does not have succession rights or perform any public duties, therefore not much is known about him and it is likely he lives a fairly normal life with his family in either Honduras (where his father originated from), England (where he and his sister were born and their parents married) or Belgium (where his mother is a princess and his half-cousin is the king).

Wednesday, May 20, 2015

Royal Profile: Prince Rashid bin El Hassan of Jordan

Prince Rashid bin El Hassan of Jordan  was born on 20  May 1979 as the son of Prince Hassan bin Talal and  Princess Sarvath El Hassan.

He was educated in Jordan and the United Kingdom. He began his education at Amman Baccalaureate School, before heading off to England. In England, he first attened Port Regis School, before going for his GCSE's at Harrow School. He attended the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst. He also attended the University of Cambridge, earning at B.A. Hons. in Oriental Studies.

Upon graduation, he returned to Jordan to begin a career in the Jordanian Armed Forces. He also undertook several military courses in the mid-1990s. In addition to his military career, he also has found time for charity work. He is or was part of the following organizations:


  • Jordan Amateur Boxing Association (Head, 1999-2007)
  • The Hasemite Charitable Organization (Chairman of the Board of Trustees, 2002-Present)
  • Jordan Polo Team (Captain, 2005-Present)
  • Cooperative Monitoring Center Amman (Chairman, 2006-Present)
  • Jordan Taekondo Federation (President, 2007-Present)

His engagement to Miss Zeina Shaban was announced on 3 July 2010. They were married just over a year later, on 22 July 2011. Princess Zeina gave birth to their first child, Prince Hassan on 1 December 2013. Prince Rashid bin El Hassan  is currently 16th in line for the throne, and his cousin is currently the King of Jordan.


Royal Profile: The Lady Cosima Rose Alexandra Windsor

The Lady Cosima Rose Alexandra Windsor was born 20 May 2010, the younger of two children of Alexander Windsor, Earl of Ulster and Claire, Countess of Ulster {Source}.

She is one of 6 grandchildren of The Duke & Duchess of Gloucester.

The little girl is presently 27th in line for the British Throne.

Due to her age, and distance to the throne, little is known about her and she is primarily kept from the public eye. Her father works as a Director of Transnational Crisis Project and is a former British Army officer {Source} Her mother is a doctor. She has one younger brother, Xan Windsor, Lord Culloden.

Royal Profile: Crown Prince Pavlos of Greece, Prince of Denmark

Crown Prince Pavlos was born in Athens on 20 May, 1967 {Source}. At seven months old, he moved with his family to Rome, before settling in London in 1974{Source}. He attended the Hellenic College, founded by his parents, King Constantine and Queen Anne-Marie{Source}.

The Crown Prince graduated the United World College in 1986 Prince Pavlos graduated the Georgetown School of Foreign Service in international relations, Law and Organisation in 1993 and the Georgetown Masters School of Foreign Service with a Masters Degree in Foreign Relations and Economics - specialising in Eastern Europe and the Balkans{Source}.

After finishing at UWC, he went on to serve as a Lieutenant in the British Army{Source}. He completed his officer training at the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst and was awarded the position of Commandant' Stick Orderly{Source}.. He was then awarded a Short Service Commission in the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards, where he served for three years{Source}.

Between 1995 and 1997, Crown Prince Pavlos was employed by the Charles R. Weber Company Inc. in the operation and marketing departments{Source}. In February 1997, he co-founded Griphon Asset Management, an alternative investment fund-of-funds{Source}. In November 1998, he co-founded Ivory Capital Group LLC, an investment firm dedicated to managing private investment partnerships, which include a fundamental value based hedge fund and a fund-of-funds{Source}.

In 2002 he co-founded Ortelius Capital Partners LLC, an alternative asset management group specializing in hedge funds, while in 2003 he co-founded Brigantine, a value based equity fund{Source}.

Crown Prince Pavlos married Marie-Chantal Miller, (HRH Princess Marie-Chantal), in London, in 1995{Source}.

They have 5 children{Source}.:

  1. Princess Maria-Olympia (1996)
  2. Prince Constantine-Alexios (1998)
  3. Prince Achileas-Andreas (1999)
  4. Prince Odysseas-Kimon (2004)
  5. Prince Aristidis-Stavros (2008).

Crown Prince Pavlos and his family currently reside in London{Source}.

The Crown Prince of Greece is active on the internet, maintaining his own site and twitter account. You can follow HRH Crown Prince Pavlos' blog, AGORA, hosted on the online magazine Periscope Post, and on twitter (@ pavlosgr1){Source}.

Monday, May 18, 2015

Royal Profile: Prince Benedikt of Liechtenstein

Prince Benedikt of Liechtenstein was born 18 May 2008, the 2nd son of Prince Constantin and Princess Marie. He was born in Vienna, Austria. He has an older sister and brother, Prince Mortz and Princess Georgina.

He is presently 9th in line for the throne of Liechtenstein after his two uncles, four cousins, father and brother.


It is likely that the 7-year-old speaks German, the official language of Liechtenstein.


Other than this, not much is known about him.

Royal Profile: Prince Alfons of Liechtenstein

Prince Alfons of Liechtenstein was born 18 May 2001 in London as the only child of Prince Maximilian & Princess Angela {Source}. He is a grandson of Prince Hans-Adam II & Princess Marie, thus is presently 6th in line for the throne of Liechtenstein {Source}.

On his 7th birthday, his cousin Prince Benedikte was born {Source}. One of his godparents is his paternal uncle, Prince Constantin of Liechtenstein{Source}.

Due to the privacy of the Princely Family, not too much is known about them. It is likely that he speaks German, the official language of Liechtenstein. 

Sunday, May 17, 2015

The Royal Recap of the Royals You Love: May 11-17, 2015

Belgium

-King Philippe & Queen Mathilde attended the ‘Best of Belgium’ concert to celebrate the 35th anniversary of concert hall Ancienne Belgique in Monday {Photos}.

-Queen Mathilde welcomed two well-known contemporary artists from China on Wednesday {Source}.

-Princess Astrid, Archduchess of Austria-Este & Prince Lorenz, Archduke of Austria-Este attended the opening ceremony of the 33 th edition of the Special Olympics National Games Belgium on Wednesday {Source}

Denmark

-Crown Prince Fredrik & Crown Princess Mary celebrated their 10th wedding anniversary on Thursday.

-Princess Marie participated in the AIDS-Fondets IPM briefing/meeting on Wednesday {Photos}

France

-Princess Isabelle Roxane Christine of Orléans celebrated her 10th birthday on Tuesday.

Great Britain

-Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Philip, The Duke of Edinburgh, The Prince Charles of Wales, Camilla, The Duchess of Cornwall, The Prince Edward, The Earl of Wessex, Sophie, The Countess of Wessex,Prince Richard, The Duke of Gloucester & Birigitte, The Duchess of Gloucester attended the first Garden Party of the 2015 on Tuesday {Photos}.

-Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Philip, The Duke of Edinburgh, The Prince Andrew, The Duke of York, Sophie, The Countess of Wessex, The Lady Louise Alice Elizabeth Mary Mountbatten-Windsor attended the Royal Windsor Horse Show on Friday {Photos}.

-Queen Elizabeth II, The Prince Edward, The Earl of Wessex, Sophie, The Countess of Wessex, James Mountbatten-Windsor, Viscount Sevrrn, The Lady Louise Alice Elizabeth  Mary Mountbatten-Windsor, Peter Mark Andrew Philips, Autumn Patricia Kelly Philips, Savannah Anne Kathleen Philips &  Isla Elizabeth Philips attended the Royal Windsor Horse Show on Saturday{Photos}.

-Queen Elizabeth II, &  Camilla, The Duchess of Cornwall attended the opening of the 2015 Royal Windsor Horse Show (RWHS) on Wednesday {Photos}.

-Prince Philip, The Duke of Edinburgh & Zara Anne Elizabeth Philips Tindall attended day 2 of the  2015 Royal Windsor Horse Show (RWHS) on Thursday {Photos}

-The Prince Charles of Wales & Camilla, The Duchess of Cornwall toured the World Museum and viewed the exhibition, Mayas: Revelation of an Endless Time  on Thursday {Source}.

-The Prince Edward, The Earl of Wessex opened the new £3 million Wessex Building at the King Edward's School and the new art venue, The Edge, at the University of Bath on Monday {Source}{Source}

-Sophie, The Countess of Wessex opens the new air operating base at Thames Valley Air Ambulance at RAF Benson on Monday {Photos}.

-The Princess Anne, The Princess Royal officially opened new buildings at the Bishop of Winchester Academy on Tuesday {Video}

-Prince Harry of Wales offiically toured Austrailia and New Zeland this week. Full recap to come.

-Peter Mark Andrew Philips & Autumn Patricia Kelly Philips celebrated their 7th wedding anniversary on Sunday.  

-Zara Anne Elizabeth Philips-Tindall  celebrated her 34th birthday on Thursday.

-The Hon. Margarita Elizabeth Rose Alleyne Armstrong-Jones celebrated her 13th birthday on Thursday.

-The Lady Alexandra Clare Carniegie & Mr. Mark Fleming Etherington celebrated their 14th wedding anniversary on Monday. 

Greece

-Ana María Morales y de Grecia celebrated her 12th birthday on Friday.

Japan

-Empress Michiko & Princess Kiko presided over the 2015 Japan Red Cross Annual Meeting on Wednesday {Photos}

Jordan

-King Abdullah II &  Queen Rania  attended the launch of the 'Jordan 2025' on Monday {Source}.

-King Abdullah II attended the 57th International Charlemagne Prize of Aachen on Thursday {Photos}

-Queen Rania visited the Shifa’ Bint Awf School for Girls on Wednesday {Source}.

-Princess Sumaya bint El Hassan celebrated her 44th birthday on Thursday.

Liechtenstein

-Princess Maria-Anuciata celebrated her 30th birthday on Tuesday.

-Lukas Maria von Lattorff celebrated his 15th birthday on Wednesday.

-Prince Maximilian celebrated his 46th birthday on Saturday.

-Princess Margretha celebrated her 58th birthday on Friday.

Luxembourg

-Prince Jean celebrated his 58th birthday on Friday.

Monaco

-Prince Albert II inaugurated the new International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) on Monday {Source}. On Thursday, Monaco's sovereign prince attended the  2015 Peter Benchley Ocean Awards {Photos}

-Charlotte Marie Pomeline Casiraghi attended the Cannes Film Festival premiere of Roco and his Brothers  on Sunday {Photos}

-Jonkvrouw Leticia de Massy de Brouwer celebrated her 44th birthday on Saturday.

The Netherlands

-Queen Maxima celebrated her 44th birthday on Sunday.

-Isabella Lily Juliana van Vollenhoven celebrated her 13th birthday on Thursday.

Norway

-King Harald V, Queen Sonja, Crown Prince Haakon, Crown Princess Mette-Marit, Princess Ingrid Alexandra & Prince Sverre Magnus attended the 2015 National Day celebrations on Sunday {Photos}


Portugal

-Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza & Isabel Inês de Herédia, Duchess of Braganza celebrated their 20th wedding anniversary on Wednesday. 

-Dom Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza celebrated his 70th birthday on Thursday.

Romania

-Crown Princess Margareta  was elected today President of the Romanian Red Cross on Thursday {Source}
Margareta is the eldest of five daughter of King Michael I.

Spain

-King Felipe VI & Queen Letizia attended the end of the 2014-2015 edition of the international competition of scientific monologues "FameLab" on Thursday {Source}

-King Felipe VI attended the International Charlemagne Prize 2015 on Wednesday {Source}. On Thursday, he attended the 57th International Charlemagne Prize of Aachen{Photos}

-Queen Letizia was presented with the 11th National Teach Zone of the Civil Guard on Wednesday {Source}.

-King Juan Carlos I & Queen Sofia celebrated their 53rd wedding anniversary on Thursday.

Sweden

-King Carl XVI Gustaf, Queen Siliva, Crown Princess Victoria, Prince Daniel, Princess Estelle, Prince Carl Philip, Princess Madeleine, Princess Leonore & Sofia Helviqist attended Prince Carl Philip & Sofia's banns of marriage ceremony on Sunday {Photos}

-Prince Carl Philip celebrated his 36th birthday on Wednesday.

Royal Profile: Queen Máxima of the Netherlands

Queen Máxima of the Netherlands was born 17 May 1971, in Buenos Aires, Argentina the daughter of Jorge Horacio Zorreguieta Stefanini (b. 1928) and his second wife María del Carmen Cerruti Carricart (b. 1944){Source}. She has two brothers, a sister and three half-sisters by her father's first wife Marta López Gil{Source}.

She attended Northlands School and Universidad Católica Argentina, where she graduated with a degree in Economics in 1995{Source}. She worked as an investment banker after graduating, she worked for large international Finance companies in Argentina, New York and Europe{Source}.

She met the heir to the Dutch throne when they were both attending the Seville Spring Fair: "Feria de abril de Sevilla" in 1999{Source}. At the time, she was unaware that he was a prince, as he had introduced himself as simply, Alexander{Source}. Apparently, when Alexander confessed that he was a prince, she thought he was joking! After their initial meeting, they agreed to meet again in New York City, where she was working at the time{Source}. Their relationship and eventual marriage plans were not met without controversy due to her father's involvement with the Argentine government. Thus, when she and her prince married in Amsterdam on 2 February 2002, her parents were not among the guests . On her 30th birthday, she was granted dual Argentine and Dutch Citizenship by royal decree. By Royal Decree on 25 January 2002, upon the solemnization of marriage Máxima Zorreguieta was taken up into the Dutch nobility and the title Princess of the Netherlands and Princess of Orange-Nassau, and the predicate Royal Highness, were formally granted to her{Source}. By Royal Decree nr. 42 of 25 January 2002, the Princess was granted her own personal coat of arms and a personal standard{Source}.On 13 May 2011 the Dutch parliament confirmed that when the Prince of Orange ascends the throne, Princess Máxima will take the style and title of Her Majesty The Queen of the Netherlands{Source}. Rather than converting to the Reformed Dutch Church upon marriage, she remained Roman Catholic, agreeing that any of their children would be raised within the religion of the Dutch Royal Family. Together, they have three daughters who are:



She is also godmother to:
  1. Countess Leonore of Orange-Nassau, Jonkvrouwe van Amsberg (her niece) 
  2. Prince Sverre Magnus of Norway {Source}


Queen Maxima is active in rights for women and migrants to The Netherlands{Source}. She speaks fluent English, Dutch and Spanish. She is often acting as a representative of The Netherlands at conference around the world{Source}.

Saturday, May 16, 2015

Royal Profile: Jonkvrouw Leticia de Massy de Brouwer

Jonkvrouw Leticia de Massy de Brouwer is the only daughter of Christian de Massy with his first marriage to María Marta Quintana y del Carril on 16 May 1971 {Source}. She has two brothers, one adopted and the other is a half brother: Brice & Antoine. She married Jonkheer Thomas de Brouwer on 3 September 2006 {Source}. They have fraternal twins and two other daughters:
  1. Jonkvrouw Liliah de Brouwer (2001, her stepdaughter){Source}
  2. Jonkvrouw Hermine de Brouwer (2003, her stepdaughter){Source}
  3. Jonkvrouw Rose de Brouwer (2008) {Source}
  4. Jonkheer Sylvestre de Brouwer (2008) {Source}

She, her father, brothers and children do not have claims to the throne anymore since the death of Prince Rainier. In the unlikely scenario that Prince Rainer's descendants die out, the National Council could elect her or one of her children as a direct Grimaldi descendant to the throne.

Like the rest of her family, she makes rare appearances on behalf of the Princely family. Even rarer than her parents. I don’t think we’ve ever actually seen her, but we may have. She could've attended her grandmother's funeral in April 2011 (possibly her in front of Andrea Casiraghi?) and the Monaco National Day 2011 (on the balcony with Donatella? ). She and her husband were an invited guest to the wedding celebrations of Prince Albert & Princess Charlene in 2011 {Source}, so she may have been among the family there. A more recent sighting of her could be the attendance of the Princely Twins baptism in May 2015 {Photos}.

She is part of the board of directors of Les Farfadets{Source}

She and her family previously resided in Belgium, but have since moved to Monaco.

Royal Profile: Maud Windsor

Maud Elizabeth Daphne Marina Windsor was born 15 August 2013 as the eldest daughter of Lord Frederik Windsor and Sophie Winkleman { Sourc...