During the reign of his father, Prince Muhammed was appointed to the Saudi Royal Guard Regiment. Later, he was appointed to minister of Defense and Inspector General, after his brother Fahd bin Saud.
He was the Governor of the al Bahah Province, western coastal province of Saudi Arabia, from 1987 to 2010. He resigned from his post due to health problems.
He was appointed the Commander of his father’s bodyguard in 1953 and then, the Minister of Defense in December 1960. He was among King Saud's most important supporters. Following a power struggle with his half-brother, the then-Crown Prince Faisal, King Saud was deposed and forced into exile. In November 1964, Prince Muhammad pledged his allegiance to King Faisal. He was the first of the sons of the deposed king to do so, reportedly because he was married to one of King Faisal’s daughters, Princess Sara. Since being rehabilitated in the mid-1960s, he held several important positions, and served as Governor of al Bahah Province from 1987 to 2010.
He had three wives. His most noted wife was Princess Sara bint Faisal, who was also his cousin. Together, he and Princess Sara have four children: Faisal, Khalid, Mishaal and Nura.